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Religion In Non-Western Societies During The 19th Century


During the 19th century, a number of religious movements were inspired by the greater sociocultural and spiritual processes and they essentially transformed into both the creation as well as the creator of social change, and in a few cases resulted in lasting forms of Christianity and other religions. The advent of western modernism that upturned both medieval theology as authority, the Renaissance, and the era of industrialization had all resulted in significant amount of social ferment during the 19th century, for new religious rational, democratization, as well as numerous religious movements. During this period, both 'science' and 'religion' underwent significant changes. The relationship between these two has transformed with the passage of time as well as across various geographies of the globe, and also across individuals. The numerous writings of the late nineteenth-century historians of religion has a profound impact on the way religion is perceived in the twentieth century.

There was only a single religious census that was held in Great Britain in the year 1851. According to this census, there were about 898,442 sessions that existed in various Welsh places of reverence, the proportions of the several denominations included established Church, Calvinistic Methodists, Congregationalists, Baptists, and others. It was also revealed that 90% of the people of Wales chose to visit the non-conformist sanctuaries, as the Non-conformist were inclined towards attending more than one form of service, while the Anglicans stuck to just one form of service and this particular aspect possibly exaggerated the non-conformist belief.

With about one-fifth of the total population preferring to visit Anglican churches and possible two-fifths of the remaining population choosing not to attend any service, the mid-19th century was certainly popular with non-conformist devotion. This massive growth of non-conformist devotion was a result of evangelical revival of the 18th century. The locus of the Calvinistic Methodists as a program within the English Church grew indefensible and weak. In the year 1811 they transformed into a distinct denomination and took up a Presbyterian system of church governance. This was essentially more an integration in contrast to the Baptists and Congregationalists who highlighted the dominance of every single church. In addition, the weaknesses of the Established Churches supported the popularity of the Non-conformists. There were earnest efforts during the 19th century for correcting these weaknesses. It was during the same period, the religious movement in England also reinforced anti-Catholic sentiments among the Nonconformists as well as the people who believed in Low Church, and eventually resulted in the growth of the Roman Catholic Church.